Android

An android is a robot or synthetic organism designed to look and act human. The word derives from ανδρός, the genitive of the Greek ανήρ anēr, meaning "man", and the suffix -eides, used to mean "of the species; alike" (from eidos, "species"). It was first used by St. Albertus Magnus in 1270 and was popularized by the French writer Villiers in his 1886 novel L'Ève future.


Usage and distinctions
Robot means simply a "mechanical" being and cyborg refers specifically to a being that is part organic and partly mechanical. Android is used to denote a robot that closely resembles a human. The fascination in developing machines that can mimic human behavoir can be found historically in two concepts: simulacra, devices that exhibit likeness and automata, devices that have independence. The term "droid", coined by George Lucas in Star Wars (1977) but now used widely within science fiction, was originally an abbreviation of "android", has been used since to mean any robot, including distinctly non-humaniform machines.

21st Century Androids
Early in the 20th century it became possible to mimic much human movement, even if cognition was lacking. In 2006, Kokoro Co. developed the DER2 android. DER2 can not only change its expression but also move its hands and feet and twist its body. The smoothness of her movement was convincing, so much so the uninitiated would frequently confuse her with an actual human. These really were sophisticated similcra, as there ability to interact meaningfully was limited in complex environments. see http://www.hansonrobotics.com/einstein_video.html

Towards the end of the 21st century, when cheap optical processors became plentiful, Level 2 AI became common, and could provide improved perception, including visual, speech and general pattern recognition that allowed 'androids' to operate autonomously in normal environments.

Early 22nd Century Androids
Andoids early in this century had completely convincing mechanical movements, including gestures and facial expressions. In addition the development of the HP Fuel Cell gave them enough power for a days work. For brain power they used a Level 3 AI design, featuring a new architecture that resulted in the development of true complex cognitive abilities, based on the principle of adaptive cognitive modelling.

Near human cognitive abilities
Prof. Kateryna Kovalenko used an array of Level 3 units, combined with the new progammable Personality/Emotion units, which overtime resulted in emergent level 4 behavoir, such as moral inquiry, humor and creativity. These traits probably resulted in their early reputation for instability. It took years of development to produce level 4 units small enough to be used in the work place. The first miniturized Level 4 chipsets became available in 2142, these were the Intel PAI-4M, and these had sufficent power to enable the creation of the first convincing androids, much to the disturbance of the general public.
Level 5 and beyond: human cognitive abilities
The Level 5 AI's were first developed during the 22nd century by Prof K. V. Chandra of the Martian Cybernetics institute. They required the development of advanced quantum cores to be implemented. Gone was the bit by bit approach of the fours, replaced now by the Universal Modeller, an information processing device that could model many different complex systems, including the human brain. Overall their cognitive abilities were potentially greater than human.

The firt Level 5 Android AI was aiAL 2169, who fought with the rebels during the Mars Rebellion and later became the prototype for the famous AL-Mobile 228 core.

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